The case study: Development of a LED lighting product by utilizing the tools
In this section, a prototype lighting product (Figure 1), a demonstrator of the cycLED project, is used to illustrate how relevant tools of cycLED toolbox are utilised in the product development process.
Figure 1. A prototype lighting product
Relevant directives, regulations and standards related to sustainable development were utilized to develop the PDS, such as Energy labelling directive (2010/30/EU), Eco-design directive (2005/125/EC), Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment recycling (WEEE) and Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) directive.
In the conceptual design phase, the product concept was developed in compliance relevant regulations and directives, for example,
Energy labelling directive (2010/30/EU) (European Commission, 2010a): The packaging of the luminaire provide information about energy consumption, light output performance, and useful lifetime of the light sources used.
Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment recycling (WEEE) directive (European Commission, 2012): The company has been registered with a WEEE recovery and recycling scheme.
Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) directive (European Commission, 2011): The product and all the components included comply with RoHS directive.
The Eco-design directive (2009/125/EC) (European Commission, 2009): The LED driver-LED system has been optimized to save energy, and Energy-efficient light sources have been used. In terms of materials, the lifespan of the product has been extended, it has been designed the product so it is easy to dismantle to facilitate repair, re-use, re-manufacture and recycling. Recycled materials have been used, that are recyclable.
In the detail design phase, standards related to lighting and LED products are followed, and relevant software tools are utilized to develop the LED lighting product.
(1) Compliance with standards
Components (LEDs, drivers, heat sinks, etc.) specified to suppliers should have passed the required standard. The following standards are utilised:
British standards CE, EN55015 (BSI, 2013a), EN61000-3-2 (BSI, 2014a), EN61347-2-13 (BSI, 2014b), EN61347-1 (BSI, 2013b), EN61547 (BSI, 2009), EN62384 (BSI, 2006): These standards are related with reliability and safety of drivers. Some of these are required to comply with the basic CE label for devices that have to be commercialized in EU, and others specify performance requirements that can be over the standards required. The LED driver selected (Lumotech LEDlight Micro series - L05050 / L05150) comply with all the standards mentioned above, and present some advanced features which makes the driver (and hence the whole lighting system) more reliable and long lasting. Advanced features: Short and open circuit protection, overload and over voltage protection, Safety Extra Low Voltage (SELV), future-proof flexibility: Industry leading output voltage range enabling seamless support of LED generations and minimizing supply chain complexity.
IES-LM-80 (IES, 2008a) and IES-TM-21 (IES, 2011): These are standards and methods for testing the estimated lifespan of LEDs. LEDs have to be outsourced from suppliers that provide lifespan data based on these standards in order for the results to be reliable and comparable with other suppliers. The LEDs selected (Samsung LM 561A – 5630 middle power LED) provided performance datasheets based on these standards.
(2) Utilization of software tools
The following software tools are utilised to select/design the components of the demonstrator:
LED-driver selector on-line web-based tool (Future Lighting Solutions Inc., 2015): The driver selector tool helps to choose the optimum driver type (in terms of performance) according to specific LEDs performance. Once the brand and general type of components (LEDs and driver) were selected, It was selected the specific performance (model) of each type of component (LED and LED-driver) based on the results of this tool to optimize the energy efficacy of the LED-LED driver system.
KiCad EDA suite software suite (Kicad EDA, 2015): Kicad is a software used to design schematic diagrams and Printed Circuit Boards (PCB). The LED chips used are standard, but the LED- strip created is not. This LED-strip PCB was designed using Kicad suite software.
Thermal resistance datasheets: Thermal resistance datasheets were used to guide heat sink design and dimensions. The aluminium-made extruded heat sink initially designed by the manufacture of this product was improved and optimized in a second iteration using the thermal resistance datasheets and the experience of external consultants. These changes were carried out to optimize the thermal performance of the heat sink.
In this phase, the manufactured prototype of the demonstrator (Figure 1) was tested and analysed to confirm that the final real product could pass all the tests and standards required. In so doing, software-based tools, hardware tools, and test/testing methods were used. The types of tests/analyses and tools used in this phase is briefly presented in this sub-section, as shown below:
(1) Software-based analysis tools utilized
The following software tools were utilised:
ProSource (Radiant Vision Systems, 2015b): This software can process the data captured by the goniometer, and translate it into EULUMDAT and IESNA photometric files that can be exported and analysed in Photometric analysis software. The light performance of the prototype was analysed to obtain the photometric files and calculate the efficacy of the luminaire. Photometric files ultimately provide the light distribution of the luminaire, which can help to reduce the energy consumption. If the light distribution is known, the light output of the luminaire can be used more efficiently.
Photometrics Pro (Photometric.com, 2015): This software can analyse the data contained in EULUMDAT and IESNA photometric files, and translate it into graphs-results which shows the light performance (light distribution, light intensity, beam angle, etc.) of the luminaire. After using the goniometer and ProSource software to obtain the EULUMDAT and IESNA files, these were used in Photometric Pro to analyse the light parameters and performance of the luminaire.
Simapro (Pre Consultants 2015): This software is used to assess the environmental impact of the luminaire. The prototype was dismantled and all the materials and substances weighted and its values input into the software for analysis. The results of the assessment showed the total environmental impact of: the luminaire, each life cycle stage, and each process and material used. This information was used to know which product life cycle stage and components had higher impact to inform possible further eco-design improvements to reduce the impact of the luminaire. Since this is not the final manufactured product the assessment results cannot be used (externally) to inform consumers, to support Environmental Product Declarations (EPD), or for benchmarking.
(2) Hardware-based measurement tools utilized
Source meter (Kethley, 2015): This is a tool used to measure the energy efficacy of the LED, LED driver and LED-LED driver system, among other functions. Once the LEDs and LED drivers were selected based on several criteria: energy efficacy, compliance with RoHS, reliability and serviceability; these were tested with a source meter to confirm the energy efficacy of each component, and to find out the energy efficacy of the LED-LED driver system. The efficiency of the driver was 80.4%, and the efficacy of the LED-LED driver system was 112 Lm/W, which is a good value.
Goniometer (Radiant Vision Systems, 2015a): This tool is used to capture and measure the photometric data from the luminaire. The light performance of the prototype was measured using the goniometer, and photometric files (EULUMDAT and IESNA) produced using ProSource software (Radiant Vision Systems, 2015b). Figure 2 below shows the luminaire is mounted in the goniometer for teating, while Figure 3 shows the measurement results.
Illuminance meter (Konica Minolta, 2015a): This tool is used to measure the illuminance of the luminaire in lux. This value is necessary to carry out the analysis with the goniometer and obtain the photometric files. The illuminance of the prototype was calculated when the luminaire was mounted on the goniometer previous to conduct the full light goniometer analysis.
Colour meter (Konica Minolta, 2015b): This tool is used to measure the Correlated Colour Temperature (CCT) in °Kelvin (°K) of light sources or luminaires. The CCT of the luminaire was measured as part of the light analysis. CCT measurements are required because the colour temperature of the luminaire may differ from the one provided by the light source supplier when the light source is used within the luminaire whole system. The luminaire function is to provide a specific light quantity and quality because both parameters affect the energy used and the lifespan of the luminaire. For example: If the CCT degrades below certain levels, the function of the luminaire may not satisfy the user needs and hence the luminaire will be disposed.
Power meter (Maplin, 2015): This tool is used to measure the energy consumption of the luminaire. The energy consumption of the prototype was measured before the light analysis with the goniometer. The measurement was carried out after 30 minutes of functioning in order to allow the luminaire consumption to stabilize.
Figure 2. Luminaire mounted in goniometer for light measurement and analysis.
Figure 3. Polar candela diagram.
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